This site contains a non-exhaustive list of publications authored by ESTP board members (compiled July 2019) on the topic of tattoo and permanent make-up research.

In addition to free excess to the journal Dermatology from Karger for ESTP members, we want to point out that the journal installed a special section for Tattoo and Body Art that is edited by ESTP president Prof. Jørgen Serup.



Second Edition

Editors: Christa De Cuyper and Maria Luisa Perez-Cotapos, ISBN 978-3-642-03292-9



With Atlas of Illustrative Cases

Editors:  Jørgen Serup, Wolfgang Bäumler, ISBN: 978-3-318-05977-9



In: Gynecologic Dermatology: Symptoms, Signs and Clinical Management

Editors: Gudula Kirtschig, Susan M Cooper

Chapter Author: Christa De Cuyper, ISBN: 9781909836013



Editors:  Jørgen Serup, Nicolas Kluger, Wolfgang Bäumler, ISBN: 978-3-318-02776-1



In: Evidence Based Dermatology

Editors: Howard Maibach, Farzam Gorouchi.

Chapter Authors: Uwe Wollina & Christa De Cuyper, ISBN: 9781607950394



Editors: Christa De Cuyper and Maria Luisa Perez-Cotapos, ISBN 978-3-642-03292-9

Journal Publications


van der Bent, S.A.S., de Winter, R.,  Wolkerstorfer, A. & Rustemeyer, T. Red tattoo reactions, a prospective cohort on clinical aspects. JEADV, doi: 10.1111/jdv.15677, [Epub ahead of print] (2019).

van der Bent, S.A.S.,  Berg, T.,  Karst, U. Sperling, M. & Rustemeyer, T. Allergic reaction to a green tattoo with nickel as a possible allergen. Contact Dermatitis, 81(1):64-66 (2019).

de Winter, R.,  van der Bent, S.A.S.,  van Esch, M. Wolkerstorfer, A.  Rustemeyer, T. Allergic Reaction to Red Cosmetic Lip Tattoo Treated With Hydroxychloroquine. Dermatitis, 30(1):82-83 (2019).

Schreiver, I., Hutzer, C., Luch, A. A Two-Step Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography Method with Mass Spectrometric Detection for Identification of Tattoo Ink Ingredients and Counterfeit Products. J Vis Exp, 147:e59689, (2019).

Milam, EC., Leger, MC., McClain, SA. & Brustein DM. Concurrent keratoacanthomas and nonsarcoidal granulomatous reactions in new and preexisting tattoos. Cutis, 103(2):E39-E42 (2019).

Nørreslet, L.B., Serup, J., Kezic, S., Engebretsen, K.A., Thyssen, J.P., Agner, T. & Clausen, M.-L. Tattoos and skin barrier function: Measurements of TEWL, stratum corneum conductance and capacitance, pH, and filaggrin. Skin Res Technol, 25:382–388 (2019).




Niederer, M., Hauri, U., Kroll, L. & Hohl, C. Identification of organic pigments in tattoo inks and permanent make-up using laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry. f1000Research, 6:2034 (2018).

Bil, W. van der Bent, S.A.S. Spiekstra, S.W.  Nazmi, K., Rustemeyer, T. & Gibbs S. Comparison of the skin sensitization potential of 3 red and 2 black tattoo inks using interleukin-18 as a biomarker in a reconstructed human skin model. Contact Dermatitis 79(6):336-345 (2018).

Huisman, S. van der Bent, S.A.S. Wolkerstorfer, A. & Rustemeyer, T. Granulomatous tattoo reactions in permanent makeup of the eyebrows. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 18(1):212-214 (2019).

Maijer, K.I. van der Bent, S.A.S. Vercoutere, W. & Rustemeyer, T. Granulomatous Tattoo reaction with Associated Uveitis successfully treated with methotrexate. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 32(9):e338-e339 (2018).

Kluger, N. & De Cuyper, C. A practical guide about tattooing for patients with chronic skin disorders and other medical conditions.  Am J Clin Dermatol, 19:167-180 (2017).

Schreiver, I., Eschner, L.-M. & Luch, A. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry for identification of organic tattoo pigments in inks and tissue samples. Analyst 143(16):3941-3950 (2018).

Hering, H., Luch, A. & Schreiver, I. Laser irradiation of organic tattoo pigments releases carcinogens with 3,3’-dichlorobenzidine inducing DNA strand breaks in human skin cells. J Invest Dermatol 138(12):2687-2690 (2018).

Hutton Carlsen, K. & Serup, J. Sequels to tattoo removal by caustic products. Skin Res Technol, 24:636–641 (2018).

Price, A., Tavazoie, M., Meehan, SA. & Leger M. Id reaction associated with red tattoo ink. Cutis, 102(5):E32-E34 (2018).

Navrazhina, K., Goldman, B. & Leger, MC. Atypical Intraepidermal Melanocytic Proliferation Masked by a Tattoo: Implications for Tattoo Artists and Public Health Campaigns. Cureus,  10(7):e2975 (2018).

Karsai, S., Bäumler, W., Weiss, C., Faulhaber, J. & Raulin, C. Laser tattoo removal: do we already have picosecond lasers? JDDG, 16: 468-470 (2018).

Alsing, K.K., Johannesen, H.H., Hvass Hansen, R., Dirks, M., Olsen, O. & Serup, J. MR scanning, tattoo inks, and risk of thermal burn: An experimental study of iron oxide and organic pigments. Skin Res Technol, 24: 278– 284 (2018).




Van der Bent, S.A.S., Maijer, K.I. & Rustemeyer, T. Hyperkeratotic hypersensitivity reaction to red pigment tattoo. British Journal of Dermatology 177:e350 (2017).

Schreiver, I., Hesse, B., Seim, C., Castillo–Michel, H., Villanova, J., Laux, P., Dreiack, N., Penning, R., Tucoulou, R., Cotte, M. & Luch, A. Synchrotron-based ν-XRF mapping and µ-FTIR microscopy enable to look into the fate and effects of tattoo pigments in human skin. Sci Rep 7, 11395 (2017).

De Cuyper, C., Lodewick, E., Schreiver, I., Hesse, B., Seim, C., Castillo‒Michel, H., Laux, P. & Luch, A. Are metals involved in tattoo-related hypersensitivity reactions? A case report. Contact Dermatitis 77(6): 397–405 (2017).

Sepehri, M., Lerche, C.M., Hutton Carlsen, K. & Serup, J. Search for Internal Cancers in Mice Tattooed with Inks of High Contents of Potential Carcinogens: A One-Year Autopsy Study of Red and Black Tattoo Inks Banned in the Market. Dermatology, 233:94-99 (2017).

Hutton Carlsen, K., Esmann, J. and Serup, J. Tattoo removal by Q‐switched yttrium aluminium garnet laser: client satisfaction. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 31: 904-909 (2017).

Lerche, C.M., Heerfordt, I.M., Serup, J., Poulsen, T. & Wulf, H.C. Red tattoos, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer in mice. Exp Dermatol, 26:1091–1096 (2017).

Sepehri, M., Sejersen, T., Qvortrup, K., Lerche, C.M. & Serup, J. Tattoo Pigments Are Observed in the Kupffer Cells of the Liver Indicating Blood-Borne Distribution of Tattoo Ink. Dermatology, 233:86-93 (2017).




Schreiver, I., Hutzler, C., Andree, S., Laux, P. and Luch, A. Identification and hazard prediction of tattoo pigments by means of pyrolysis—gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Arch Tox, 90(7):1639-1650 (2016).

Schreiver, I. & Luch, A. At the dark end of the rainbow: data gaps in tattoo toxicology. Arch. Toxicol. 90: 1763-1765 (2016).

Laux, P., Traulau, T., Tentschert, T., Blume, A., Al Dahouk, S., Bäumler, W., Bernstein, E., Bocca, B., Alimonti, A., Colebrook, H., De Cuyper, C., Dähne, L., Hauri, U., Howard, P., Janssen, P., Katz, L., Klitzman, B., Kluger, N., Krutak, L., Platzek, T., Scott-Lang, V., Serup, J., Teubner, W., Schreiver, I., Wilkniß, E. & Luch, A. A medical-toxicological view of tattooing. The Lancet 387:395-402 (2016).

Serup, J., Sepehri, M. & Hutton Carlsen, K. Classification of Tattoo Complications in a Hospital Material of 493 Adverse Events. Dermatology, 232:668-678 (2016).

Sepehri, M., Hutton Carlsen, K. & Serup, J. Papulo-Nodular Reactions in Black Tattoos as Markers of Sarcoidosis: Study of 92 Tattoo Reactions from a Hospital Material. Dermatology, 232:679-686 (2016).

Hutton Carlsen, K., Køcks, M., Sepehri, M. & Serup, J. Allergic reactions in red tattoos: Raman spectroscopy for ‘fingerprint’ detection of chemical risk spectra in tattooed skin and culprit tattoo inks. Skin Res Technol, 22:460-469 (2016).

Hutton Carlsen, K. & Serup, J. Tattooing may cause life‐threatening latex allergy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 30:1242-1244 (2016).

Rosenbaum, BE., Milam, EC., Seo, L. & Leger MC. Skin Care in the Tattoo Parlor: A Survey of Tattoo Artists in New York City. Dermatology. 232(4):484-489 (2016).

Bäumler, W. Tattoos and Their Potential Health Consequences. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 113(40):663-4 (2016).




Schreiver, I., Hutzler, C., Laux, P., Berlien, H.-P. & Luch, A. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue. Sci Rep, 5:12915 (2015).

Hutton Carlsen, K. & Serup, J. Patients with tattoo reactions have reduced quality of life and suffer from itch. Skin Res Technol, 21:101-107 (2015).

Brady, BG., Gold, H., Leger, EA. & Leger, MC. Self-reported adverse tattoo reactions: a New York City Central Park study. Contact Dermatitis, 73(2):91-99 (2015).

Lerche, C.M., Sepehri, M., Serup, J., Poulsen, T. & Wulf, H.C. Black tattoos protect against UVR‐induced skin cancer in mice. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed, 31: 261-268 (2015).

Sepehri, M., Jørgensen, B. & Serup, J. Introduction of dermatome shaving as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions. J Dermatolog Treat, 26(5):451-5 (2015).

Høgsberg, T., Thomsen, B.M. & Serup, J. Histopathology and immune histochemistry of red tattoo reactions. Skin Res Technol, 21:449-458 (2015).




Bonadonna, L., Briancesco, R., Coccia, A. M., Fonda, A., La Rosa, G., Meloni, P., Paradiso, R., Paduano, S., & Semproni, M. Microbiological evaluation of open and sealed tattoo inks. Microbiologia Medica, 29(2) (2014).

Hutton Carlsen, K. and Serup, J. Photosensitivity and photodynamic events in black, red and blue tattoos are common: A ‘Beach Study’. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 28: 231-237 (2014).

Serup, J. and Hutton Carlsen, K. Patch test study of 90 patients with tattoo reactions: Negative outcome of allergy patch test to baseline batteries and culprit inks suggests allergen(s) are generated in the skin through haptenization. Contact Dermatitis, 71: 255-263 (2014).

Lehner, K., Santarelli, F., Vasold, R., Penning, R., Sidoroff, A., König, B., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler W. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human skin and regional lymph nodes. PLoS One, 26;9(3):e92787 (2014).

Klein, A., Rittmann, I., Hiller, K.A., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler, W. An Internet-based survey on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects. Lasers Med Sci, 29(2):729-38 (2014).




Høgsberg, T., Jacobsen, N. R., Clausen, P. A. & Serup, J. Black tattoo inks induce reactive oxygen species production correlating with aggregation of pigment nanoparticles and product brand but not with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content. Exp Dermatol, 22: 464-469 (2013).

Wenzel, S.M., Rittmann. I., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler W. Adverse Reactions after Tattooing: Review of the Literature and Comparison to Results of a Survey. Dermatology, 226:138-147 (2013).

Hutton Carlsen, K., Tolstrup, J. & Serup, J. High‐frequency ultrasound imaging of tattoo reactions with histopathology as a comparative method. Introduction of preoperative ultrasound diagnostics as a guide to therapeutic intervention. Skin Res Technol, 20:257-264 (2014).

Høgsberg, T., Saunte, D., Frimodt‐Møller, N. & Serup, J. Microbial status and product labelling of 58 original tattoo inks. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 27:73-80 (2013).




Høgsberg, T., Hutton Carlsen, K. & Serup, J. High prevalence of minor symptoms in tattoos among a young population tattooed with carbon black and organic pigments. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 27:846-852 (2012).




Høgsberg, T., Loeschner, K., Löf, D. & Serup, J. Tattoo inks in general usage contain nanoparticles. Br J Dermatol, 165: 1210-1218 (2011).

Lehner, K., Santarelli, F., Vasold, R., König, B., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler, W. (2011), Black tattoo inks are a source of problematic substances such as dibutyl phthalate. Contact Dermatitis, 65: 231-238 (2011).




De Cuyper, C. Different Aspect of Body Art. Body Piercing: Medical Consequences. Permanent Make-Up. Indications and complications. Kosmetische Medizin, suppl. 31:40-41 (2010).

Klügl, I., Hiller, K.A., Landthaler, M.  Bäumler, W. Incidence of Health Problems Associated with Tattooed Skin: A Nation-Wide Survey in German-Speaking Countries. Dermatology, 221:43-50 (2010).

Engel, E., Vasold, R., Santarelli, F., Maisch, T., Gopee, N.V., Howard, P.C., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler, W. Tattooing of skin results in transportation and light‐induced decomposition of tattoo pigments – a first quantification in vivo using a mouse model. Exp Dermatol, 19: 54-60 (2010).

Wenzel, S.M., Welzel, J., Hafner, C., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler, W. Permanent make‐up colorants may cause severe skin reactions. Contact Dermatitis, 63: 223-227 (2010).

Regensburger, J., Lehner, K., Maisch, T., Vasold, R., Santarelli, F., Engel, E., Gollmer, A., König, B., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler, W. Tattoo inks contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that additionally generate deleterious singlet oxygen. Exp Dermatol, 19: e275-e281 (2010).




De Cuyper, C. Permanent makeup: indications and complications. Clin Dermatol, 26:30-34 (2008).

Engel, E., Santarelli, F., Vasold, R., Maisch, T., Ulrich, H., Prantl, L., König, B., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler, W. Modern tattoos cause high concentrations of hazardous pigments in skin. Contact Dermatitis, 58: 228-233 (2008).

Vasold, R., Engel, E., König, B., Landthaler, M., Bäumler, W. Health risks of tattoo colors. Anal Bioanal Chem, 391(1):9-13 (2008).

Engel, E., Ulrich, H., Vasold, R., König, B., Landthaler, M., Süttinger, R. & Bäumler W. Azo Pigments and a Basal Cell Carcinoma at the Thumb. Dermatology, 216:76-80 (2008).




Engel, E., Spannberger, A., Vasold, R., König, B., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler, W. Photochemical cleavage of a tattoo pigment by UVB radiation or natural sunlight. JDDG, 5:583-589 (2007).




Engel, E., Santarelli, F., Vasold, R. Ulrich, H., Maisch, T., König, B., Landthaler, M., Gopee, N., Howard, P. & Bäumler, W. Establishment of an Extraction Method for the Recovery of Tattoo Pigments from Human Skin Using HPLC Diode Array Detector Technology. Anal Chem, 78(18):6440-6447 (2006).

O'goshi, K., Suihko, C. & Serup, J. In vivo imaging of intradermal tattoos by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Skin Res Technol, 12: 94-98 (2006).




Vasold, R., Naarmann, N., Ulrich, H., Fischer, D., Könlg, B., Landthaler, M. & Bäumler, W. Tattoo Pigments are Cleaved by Laser Light‐The Chemical Analysis In Vitro Provide Evidence for Hazardous Compounds. Photochemistr